physics

Apr 302015
 

2015 NASA-JSC Eagleworks Warp-field Interferometer Test Set Up

My last post detailed the possibility of a ‘warp drive’ derived by NASA, mentioning NASA’s work on an ion propulsion (or electromagnetic [EM] drive).

Yesterday, NASA brought out more information on the EM drive.

This new technology already has NASA looking at manned missions to Mars and back taking under a year, or a mission to Alpha Centauri taking less than a century.

Another variation from normal scientific research: “A community of enthusiasts, engineers, and scientists on several continents joined forces on the NASASpaceflight.com EM Drive forum to thoroughly examine the experiments and discuss theories of operation of the EM Drive.” In other words, a long discussion occurred between scientists on the NASA public forums, which helped to examine and discuss the results of NASA’s test.

This drive was originally “met with initial skepticism within the scientific community because this lack of propellant expulsion would leave nothing to balance the change in the spacecraft’s momentum if it were able to accelerate.”

And yet NASA decided to test it to make sure. This tickles me pink because NASA did not give in to the nay-sayers, those people in the ‘scientific community’ who insist that things cannot be done any differently than they’ve already tried.

I have high regard for ‘the scientific community’, but it does like to rest on old ideas at times. As a community, it’s very conservative in that it wants everything to follow the accepted scientific theories as though they were laws.

Stephen Hawking, the brilliant physicist who has created, debunked, and formulated more scientific theories than any other current scientist, is still theorizing. Even though he’s proved some of his own theories wrong or misconceived, he works on more and more, building on successes and failures, to create more theories to be considered, debunked, or accepted.

And it’s people like Hawking and organizations like NASA that will someday take mankind to the stars and beyond. Because they’re not afraid to try things that ‘conventional wisdom’ says won’t work.

It’s so impressive, so mind-boggling, so… absolutely through-the-roof-past-the-moon-out-of-this-galaxy amazing, that scientists are now considering the possibility of sending technology to study the next star system.

And that this is even considered speaks realms about the scientists who refuse to say ‘impossible’ and, instead, test new ideas.

This is what science is all about.

Cool science from the week of October 6, 2014

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Oct 092014
 

One of the reasons I started this blog is to show just how little we really know about the universe we inhabit. And it’s so much fun to fill those voids of our knowledge with fictional possibilities!

Mysteries that scientists have recently discovered:

The disappearance – and reappearance – of the feature in Ligeia Mare (a sea on Saturn’s moon, Titan).

The little black hole that could. A.K.A. hungry hungry black hole.

The loss of ice sheets in Antarctica causes changes in local gravity.

How can a dwarf star give off solar flares 10,000 times stronger than our much larger sun?

Why does this little cat-like carnivore (called a genet) ride around on much larger herbivores’ backs? And why does it have its own Twitter account?

Genet-rhino_3_watermark-1024x789

 

New theories to answer old mysteries:

What caused the dark spot on the moon?

How is aging related to cognitive decline?

Why doesn’t the naked mole rat get cancer?

nakedmolerat

Actual answers to old mysteries:

What happened to the Franklin expedition – where two ships and their crews completely disappeared? Well, one of the ships was found where local oral history said it would be. This isn’t the full answer, but it’s a step on the way.

We’ve watched chimpanzees learn to use tools in a controlled, captive environment, but were uncertain as to how this occurred in the wild. We now have evidence that chimpanzees learn new things and pass them on to others in the wild.

Darwin theorized that species travelled over oceans using pieces of vegetation, icebergs, or hitchhiking on other species. This theory – called ‘jump dispersal’ was not given much credit – until now.

In the 1930s, Ettore Majorana calculated that a particle could be both matter and anti-matter at the same time – and still be stable. While the math was impeccable, the idea seemed odd, since matter and antimatter usually destroy each other in a burst of energy. However, this particle has now been observed at the end of an atom-thick wire.

What lies at the bottom of the ocean? Scientists have used gravitational field data to map the ocean floor.

seafloormap

Ain’t science cool?

Interesting science for the week of September 26, 2014

 Science for imagination  Comments Off on Interesting science for the week of September 26, 2014
Sep 262014
 

From the big bang to hunter-gathering peoples, we have hypotheses and theories for just about anything that exists. The proof that we don’t know any of this for sure is in the new findings – and refutations of previous findings – that happen all the time.

Particle Physics/Cosmology: Dark matter

hs-2012-10-a-web (Image: NASA)

According to Bill Nye in a Reddit interview, dark matter is “apparently the source of gravity that is at once holding galaxies together and pulling them apart at an accelerating rate.”

Dark matter was first thought of back in 1932, and we still don’t know what it is. Or even if it is. We can’t see it. The only evidence we have is that it is implied indirectly. Basically, gravity calculations in space don’t give the answers scientists expect. The suggested explanation is that there is matter out there that we can’t see, and it’s affecting the gravitational pulls of stars, planets and other bodies. You can find a more complete explanation on Wikipedia.

This week, scientists who have been studying cosmic rays as a means of detecting dark matter have found further evidence to support the existence of dark matter.

Anthropology: Storytelling in ancient cultures

As with dark matter, archaic humans cannot be studied directly (not without a time machine, anyway). Instead, they are studied through what they left behind. This could include material things (such as stone tools, butchered bones, and geoglyphs (see below)) and immaterial evidence (like cultural ideas, oral history and morality tales, and what other cultures have said or written about them).

One anthropologist, Polly Wiessner, has used the study of present-day hunter-gatherers as a way to study ancient hunter-gatherers. The assumption she works on is that hunter-gathering is a pretty simple form of a society, and so past and present societies will be similar. She’s used this study to hypothesize that the introduction of fire – lengthening their day – gave ancient hunter-gatherers the ability to tell stories and strengthen their society.

Quantum Physics: Teleportation and quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is the hypothesis that two parts of a quantum particle are linked in a way that can be measured mathematically, even if they are no longer in contact.

In this article, scientists show that, even if one part is sent very far away through fibre optics, it still remains linked to the other. One thing this means is that, by studying the part that was sent away, you are able to make predictions about the part that remained.

While a practical use for such quantum research is still far in the future, it’s often used in science fiction to explain things that are otherwise impossible using general physics, such as teleportation and interspace communications.

Biology: Brain cells

The brain is another area where we still have a lot to learn. In various studies, we’re learning how the brain works, what chemicals are in the brain and what they do, and so forth.

Generally, we know that nerve cells in the brain send information to other nerve cells via axons, like sending produce from town to town on highways.

However, scientists have come across an interesting difference – a new brain cell shape that takes the information from one axon and sends it to another, going around the nerve cell like a bypass around a city. This makes for a more efficient transfer of information.

They’re now studying this new cell shape to see how the information it carries affects the brain and body processes.

Physics: The Big Bang Theory

We are still learning about our universe. We make hypotheses, test them, and see if they hold up. Sometimes they do. Sometimes not.

One theory – the Big Bang theory – theorizes that the universe began as a huge explosion. Many physicists are trying to prove or disprove the theory.

Earlier this year, one group of scientists claimed to have found evidence of gravitational waves, indicating a rapid expansion of the universe at its beginning.

Now, this claim is being refuted by another group, saying the same patterns could be found in galactic dust radiations.

The theory itself is still possible. It’s just this ‘proof’ that is in doubt. And so, the search goes on…

Geography/Archaeology: Geoglyphs

kazakhstan-geoglyphs-1
(Image copyright DigitalGlobe, courtesy Google Earth, via Live Science)

Geoglyphs are large man-made designs on the surface of the ground. These can be made from stones or by sculpting the earth in any number of ways. Many of these are hundreds of metres long.

Some existing designs are the Uffington White Horse, made of chalk, in England; the earth designs  in Peru’s Nazca desert; and boulder monuments and effigies on the northern plains. It can be difficult to see such items from ground level, but they can usually be seen from surrounding hills and mountains.

Now, scientists have found over 50 new geoglyphs in Kazakhstan using a new technology – Google Earth. Most were made by creating mounds in the earth, but at least one was made of wood.

As with all ancient phenomena, we can hypothesize as to why geoglyphs were created and by whom, but we can’t know for sure. Work is being done in many of these areas to try to find more clues, though.

Archaeology: Saskatchewan

On a more personal note: I was very pleased to see how wide-spread this article went on Twitter. Although it’s not new or groundbreaking research – it’s mostly a description of the archaeological sites in Saskatchewan – it’s home to me. I’ve been involved in archaeology in Saskatchewan through the Saskatchewan Archaeological Society and the Regina Archaeological Society, and I’ve worked on a number of sites. It’s nice to see this area get some press.