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Thankful for cool science, October 13, 2014

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Oct 132014
 

Happy Thanksgiving, Canada!

Research shows us so many things we can be thankful for.

Our bodies are infinitely complex

The brain has several backups in case of accident, stroke, or other brain injury. Scientists recently found one such backup that creates new cells to replace those damaged or lost.

Speaking of the brain, it’s generally considered that humans became humans because their brains evolved larger through time. What is remarkable, though, is that as the neocortex grew, giving humans more intelligence, the cerebellum grew even faster so that we could coordinate all the new intelligence we were able to take in.

Cholesterol, though given a bad name by the effects of cholesterol-laden foods, is necessary to cell health. Scientists have now discovered a clue as to how our bodies synthesize this important substance.

As is the universe

Dark matter, which makes up a large percentage of the universe, cannot be seen by any means we have available. The only way to know it’s there is through calculations of gravitational forces. A new study shows that there may be less dark matter than originally thought.

A galaxy has been identified that might be able to shed light on the galaxies that shaped the universe.

People are living longer

This means that, yes, there is more chronic illness. The longer you live, the older you get, the more likely you are to develop a chronic disease and to have your body just wear out. A study was done comparing the number of years lost due to illness or premature death in 1990 and in 2010. The findings show a lot of progress has been made, but there are other places where work needs to be done.

For instance, certain ailments that were present in the list for 1990 – like measles and asthma – were not even on the chart in 2010, showing that these ailments were being better controlled. However, ailments that are on the list in 2010 that were not as common in 1990 – like AIDS, anxiety disorders and interpersonal violence – need to be looked at closer.

A baby’s first hour

Birth is a miracle, and the bond between mother and baby is especially miraculous. This is how mother and baby bond in the first hour after birth.

That our world even exists

The universe is a huge place, and our little blue planet isn’t even a dot in the sky. And yet here it is, full of life and knowledge. We truly are a remarkable people on a remarkable planet.

Image from NASA

Image from NASA

Interesting science for the week of September 26, 2014

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Sep 262014
 

From the big bang to hunter-gathering peoples, we have hypotheses and theories for just about anything that exists. The proof that we don’t know any of this for sure is in the new findings – and refutations of previous findings – that happen all the time.

Particle Physics/Cosmology: Dark matter

hs-2012-10-a-web (Image: NASA)

According to Bill Nye in a Reddit interview, dark matter is “apparently the source of gravity that is at once holding galaxies together and pulling them apart at an accelerating rate.”

Dark matter was first thought of back in 1932, and we still don’t know what it is. Or even if it is. We can’t see it. The only evidence we have is that it is implied indirectly. Basically, gravity calculations in space don’t give the answers scientists expect. The suggested explanation is that there is matter out there that we can’t see, and it’s affecting the gravitational pulls of stars, planets and other bodies. You can find a more complete explanation on Wikipedia.

This week, scientists who have been studying cosmic rays as a means of detecting dark matter have found further evidence to support the existence of dark matter.

Anthropology: Storytelling in ancient cultures

As with dark matter, archaic humans cannot be studied directly (not without a time machine, anyway). Instead, they are studied through what they left behind. This could include material things (such as stone tools, butchered bones, and geoglyphs (see below)) and immaterial evidence (like cultural ideas, oral history and morality tales, and what other cultures have said or written about them).

One anthropologist, Polly Wiessner, has used the study of present-day hunter-gatherers as a way to study ancient hunter-gatherers. The assumption she works on is that hunter-gathering is a pretty simple form of a society, and so past and present societies will be similar. She’s used this study to hypothesize that the introduction of fire – lengthening their day – gave ancient hunter-gatherers the ability to tell stories and strengthen their society.

Quantum Physics: Teleportation and quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is the hypothesis that two parts of a quantum particle are linked in a way that can be measured mathematically, even if they are no longer in contact.

In this article, scientists show that, even if one part is sent very far away through fibre optics, it still remains linked to the other. One thing this means is that, by studying the part that was sent away, you are able to make predictions about the part that remained.

While a practical use for such quantum research is still far in the future, it’s often used in science fiction to explain things that are otherwise impossible using general physics, such as teleportation and interspace communications.

Biology: Brain cells

The brain is another area where we still have a lot to learn. In various studies, we’re learning how the brain works, what chemicals are in the brain and what they do, and so forth.

Generally, we know that nerve cells in the brain send information to other nerve cells via axons, like sending produce from town to town on highways.

However, scientists have come across an interesting difference – a new brain cell shape that takes the information from one axon and sends it to another, going around the nerve cell like a bypass around a city. This makes for a more efficient transfer of information.

They’re now studying this new cell shape to see how the information it carries affects the brain and body processes.

Physics: The Big Bang Theory

We are still learning about our universe. We make hypotheses, test them, and see if they hold up. Sometimes they do. Sometimes not.

One theory – the Big Bang theory – theorizes that the universe began as a huge explosion. Many physicists are trying to prove or disprove the theory.

Earlier this year, one group of scientists claimed to have found evidence of gravitational waves, indicating a rapid expansion of the universe at its beginning.

Now, this claim is being refuted by another group, saying the same patterns could be found in galactic dust radiations.

The theory itself is still possible. It’s just this ‘proof’ that is in doubt. And so, the search goes on…

Geography/Archaeology: Geoglyphs

kazakhstan-geoglyphs-1
(Image copyright DigitalGlobe, courtesy Google Earth, via Live Science)

Geoglyphs are large man-made designs on the surface of the ground. These can be made from stones or by sculpting the earth in any number of ways. Many of these are hundreds of metres long.

Some existing designs are the Uffington White Horse, made of chalk, in England; the earth designs  in Peru’s Nazca desert; and boulder monuments and effigies on the northern plains. It can be difficult to see such items from ground level, but they can usually be seen from surrounding hills and mountains.

Now, scientists have found over 50 new geoglyphs in Kazakhstan using a new technology – Google Earth. Most were made by creating mounds in the earth, but at least one was made of wood.

As with all ancient phenomena, we can hypothesize as to why geoglyphs were created and by whom, but we can’t know for sure. Work is being done in many of these areas to try to find more clues, though.

Archaeology: Saskatchewan

On a more personal note: I was very pleased to see how wide-spread this article went on Twitter. Although it’s not new or groundbreaking research – it’s mostly a description of the archaeological sites in Saskatchewan – it’s home to me. I’ve been involved in archaeology in Saskatchewan through the Saskatchewan Archaeological Society and the Regina Archaeological Society, and I’ve worked on a number of sites. It’s nice to see this area get some press.

Science coolness from the last week in February

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Mar 022014
 

Let’s see if this becomes a weekly thing.

Three things I find intensely interesting – in no particular order – are the bronze age, mummies, and cheese. Oh, and ancient unidentified peoples. And then I came across this article:

 World’s oldest cheese discovered on the chests of 3500-year-old Chinese mummies (DailyMail.co.uk)

I previously posted about some of the brand new materials science has created, including metamaterials that can creat invisible cloaks. Well, it turns out those same metamaterials can be used for sound, as well.

Metamaterials give sound a twist (ScienceNews.org)

You probably also know that I love dogs. Here is a scientific study that shows one possible reason humans and dogs get along so well together:

Human and dog brains both have dedicated ‘voice areas’  (ScienceDaily.com)